CVE

Less Downtime, More Productivity: FSI Systems Cost of Ownership

 

Flow Sciences, a leading provider of containment systems for laboratory, pilot plant, and manufacturing facilities, delivers low cost of ownership and high return on investment. By utilizing sophisticated engineering and design into the construction of the systems, they are able to achieve less lab downtime, more consistent results, no cross-contamination, and less energy consumption.

Q: How does Flow Sciences, Inc. (FSI) achieve lower cost of ownership?

A:All aspects of the systems are engineered to ensure consistent containment for the life of the enclosure, including materials of construction and modular design.  To begin, containment and safety is more important than filter change sales, and the 4” HEPA filters provide less lab downtime to our customers, besides the additional costs of the replacement filter and certification, which is timely and expensive.

Q: What HEPA filters does FSI use, and why?

A:The FSI HEPA filters are 4” pleated with a filter life of 4-5 years, eliminating the need to replace thinner filters frequently.  The airflow inside of the unit is most important. Often with filters you will see powder loading in a “hot spot” if the particulate is not spread evenly across the filter surface.  FSI hoods are designed with airfoils and internal plenums (baffles) to direct laminar airflow across the work surface.  However, the ceiling plenum itself evenly distributes the powder across the area of the filter.  When this occurs, the filter loads evenly and lasts much longer.

Q: Why is laminar airflow on the work surface important to cost of ownership?

A:Many powder applications rely on balance stability and accurate weighing to ensure reproducibility and results, resulting in less process time, which means less cost per sample.  Laminar airflow allows for improved balance stability and consistent sample weighing and manipulation.  Balances and other equipment may also be affected by vibration, which is a major concern in safety hoods.

Q: How does Flow Sciences reduce the vibration on the work surface of the hood?

A:Engineering controls isolate the vibration of the fan and create a stable work surface for balances and equipment, as well as the area around the enclosure if it is on a work bench.  We have videos on our website showing the testing with an accelerometer as well as balance stability to 6 or 7 places depending on the system.

Q: Does laminar airflow require more air volume?

 

A: Quite the inverse, actually.  FSI hoods lead the industry in containment while requiring less air and lower required face velocities.  Less air means less energy and results in cost savings, especially when the hood is connected to house exhaust.


GET A QUOTE

  • What is being done inside of the enclosure? What type of material (powder, liquid, gas, nuisance odor) is being worked with? How does the material enter and exit the enclosure system? etc...
  • What type of filtration is required? Single HEPA, Dual HEPA, Carbon, House Exhaust, etc... What is the required OEL (Occupational Exposure Limit) for the process, or any other details about containment goals? What is the quantity of powder or liquid, task duration, composition of powder, etc...?
  • What equipment is being worked with? What is the equipment model, size, scope, function, and any other information that will affect the design of the enclosure, including movement, heat output, etc...? *State the specific equipment make and model if available*
  • Drop files here or
  • Are there any additional notes or information that should be considered? Are there any special design requirements?

Stainless Steel Mettler Balance Enclosure

Application: Powder Weighing and Dispensing with Getinge La Calhene Alpha-Beta Ports

 

This stainless steel enclosure is designed for powder dispensing applications for facilities performing powdered Highly Potent Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (HPAPI) weighing and dispensing operations. Particularly, it was designed for operations conducted in facilities operating under the stipulations of current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs). The working space allows operators to freely conduct the operation by weighing a large batch (100 grams or more) of powder, dispensing the powder into a container, sealing the container, and cleaning the enclosure after use. Additionally, two ball valve fittings (3/8” NPT) are located on the right side of the enclosure for connection to inert gas sources. This connection is advantageous for sample protection by facilitating dehumidification and deoxidization of the sample environment for powder substances with attributes incurring the need for inert gas (e.g. pyrophoric powders, hygroscopic powders, high reactivity with oxygen, etc.).

After filling the bag with powder, the operator has the capability of moving the bagged powder from the enclosure to another enclosure with protection from exposure during transport. This function is made possible through the usage of an integrated Alpha Getinge La Calhene Rapid Transfer Port (RTP) on the right side of the enclosure. The incorporation of the Alpha RTP facilitates safe transfer by allowing the attachment of a Beta RTP conjugate capsule to the Alpha RTP. Following attachment, the operator is able to transfer the desired amount of powder (or aqueous solution*) from the enclosure interior, through an opening created by the Alpha/Beta connection, and into a Beta RTP capsule. From here, both the Alpha and Beta conjugates are sealed and the Beta capsule is used as a transport vehicle to the other enclosure. Referring back to the previous paragraph, the enclosure also allows for the transfer process occur, in reverse, after the Beta capsule is transported to the next enclosure or RTP-compatible device.

When designing the enclosure, Flow Sciences also considered ease and efficiency of process flow. Thus, its interior layout accommodates space for 1-2 analytical balances as well as sufficient working space around each balance for safe and effective use during your operation. Specifically, the operator is provided with ample room to move their arms to weigh, removed weighed powder, and dispense the powder into the bag.

After Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT), the enclosure was proven to contain down to an 8-hour Time Weighted Average (TWA) concentration of 100 nanograms per cubic meter of air (ng/m3). The actual level of containment was proven to be 0.06 ng/m3.

The “Containment Target”, as depicted in the image above, is the respiratory exposure concentration specified by the customer. The “Surrogate Powder Testing Result” is the actual exposure concentration result from air samples taken during performance validation testing conducted by FSI. The surrogate “contaminant” sampled during the FAT was a powder substance with attributes similar to that of the actual contaminant.

When designing the enclosure, Flow Sciences also considered ease and efficiency of process flow. Thus, its interior layout accommodates space for the Hydro SV and the Mastersizer 3000. Specifically, the operator is provided with ample room to move their arms to fill the cuvette, insert the cuvette into the Mastersizer 3000, and perform analysis; all while retaining space for wiring connections.

*Note:If the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) or Occupational Exposure Band (OEB) for the pertinent HPAPI contaminant(s) are lower than 1 microgram per cubic meter of air (1 ug/m3), dissolution of the sample into an aqueous solution is an alternative method to reduce the risk of overexposure during RTP transport.

 

            Additional Information:

Click here for more information regarding Getinge La Calhene RTP Ports.


GET A QUOTE

  • What is being done inside of the enclosure? What type of material (powder, liquid, gas, nuisance odor) is being worked with? How does the material enter and exit the enclosure system? etc...
  • What type of filtration is required? Single HEPA, Dual HEPA, Carbon, House Exhaust, etc... What is the required OEL (Occupational Exposure Limit) for the process, or any other details about containment goals? What is the quantity of powder or liquid, task duration, composition of powder, etc...?
  • What equipment is being worked with? What is the equipment model, size, scope, function, and any other information that will affect the design of the enclosure, including movement, heat output, etc...? *State the specific equipment make and model if available*
  • Drop files here or
  • Are there any additional notes or information that should be considered? Are there any special design requirements?

Stainless Steel Malvern 3000 Enclosure

Application: Small Volume Liquid Dispersion Analysis with Getinge La Calhene Alpha-Beta Ports

 

This stainless steel enclosure was designed for small volume liquid dispersion/particle size distribution analysis methods involving Highly Potent Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (HPAPIs). Particularly, it was designed for operations conducted in facilities operating under the stipulations of current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs). The working space allows operators to freely fill the Hydro SV cuvette with the aliquot, insert the aliquot into a Malvern Pananalytical Hydro SV, and insert the Micro SV into a Malvern Pananalytical Mastersizer 3000 for liquid dispersion particle distribution analysis. Additionally, two ball valve fittings (3/8” NPT) are located on the right side of the enclosure for connection to inert gas sources for propulsion of the sample into the Mastersizer 3000 for analysis.

After the analysis is complete, the operator has the capability to transfer and transport analyzed product from the enclosure to another enclosure with protection from exposure during transport. This function is made possible through the usage of an integrated Alpha Getinge La Calhene Rapid Transfer Port (RTP) on the right side of the enclosure. The incorporation of the Alpha RTP facilitates safe transfer by allowing the attachment of a Beta RTP conjugate capsule to the Alpha RTP. Following attachment, the operator is able to transfer the desired amount of powder (or aqueous solution*) from the enclosure interior, through an opening created by the Alpha/Beta connection, and into a Beta RTP capsule. From here, both the Alpha and Beta conjugates are sealed and the Beta capsule is used as a transport vehicle to the other enclosure. Referring back to the previous paragraph, the enclosure also allows for the transfer process occur, in reverse, after the Beta capsule is transported to the next enclosure or RTP-compatible device.

After Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT) and surrogate powder exposure simulations, the enclosure was proven to contain to a Time Weighted Average (TWA) concentration below the customer’s specified parameter of 100 nanograms per cubic meter of air (ng/m3). The actual level of containment was proven to be 0.06 ng/m3.

The “Containment Target”, as depicted in the image above, is the respiratory exposure concentration specified by the customer. The “Surrogate Powder Testing Result” is the actual exposure concentration result from air samples taken during performance validation testing conducted by FSI. The surrogate “contaminant” sampled during the FAT was a powder substance with attributes similar to that of the actual contaminant.

When designing the enclosure, Flow Sciences also considered ease and efficiency of process flow. Thus, its interior layout accommodates space for the Hydro SV and the Mastersizer 3000. Specifically, the operator is provided with ample room to move their arms to fill the cuvette, insert the cuvette into the Mastersizer 3000, and perform analysis; all while retaining space for wiring connections.

 

*Note:If the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) or Occupational Exposure Band (OEB) for the pertinent HPAPI contaminant(s) are lower than 1 microgram per cubic meter of air (1 ug/m3), dissolution of the sample into an aqueous solution is an alternative method to reduce the risk of overexposure during RTP transport.

 

Additional Information:


GET A QUOTE

  • What is being done inside of the enclosure? What type of material (powder, liquid, gas, nuisance odor) is being worked with? How does the material enter and exit the enclosure system? etc...
  • What type of filtration is required? Single HEPA, Dual HEPA, Carbon, House Exhaust, etc... What is the required OEL (Occupational Exposure Limit) for the process, or any other details about containment goals? What is the quantity of powder or liquid, task duration, composition of powder, etc...?
  • What equipment is being worked with? What is the equipment model, size, scope, function, and any other information that will affect the design of the enclosure, including movement, heat output, etc...? *State the specific equipment make and model if available*
  • Drop files here or
  • Are there any additional notes or information that should be considered? Are there any special design requirements?

Stainless Steel FTIR Enclosure

Application: Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis with Getinge La Calhene Alpha-Beta Ports

 

This stainless steel enclosure was designed for Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy analysis methods involving Highly Potent Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (HPAPIs). Particularly, it was designed for operations conducted in facilities operating under the stipulations of current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs). The working space allows operators to freely load samples and accessories (such as those associated with the Thermo Fisher Nicolet spectrometer series) into the spectrometer. A ball valve fitting (3/8” NPT) is located on the left side of the enclosure for connection to an inert gas source for purposes such as sample column purging, deoxidization of sample column, etc. Additionally, there are two NEMA 4X-rated electrical receptacles located inside of the enclosure for connection to a power source and two iris ports (or “glands”) which facilitate data connections from the spectrometer to your computer.

After the analysis is complete, the operator has the capability to transfer and transport analyzed product from the enclosure to another enclosure with protection from exposure during transport. This function is made possible through the use of an integrated Alpha Getinge La Calhene Rapid Transfer Port (RTP) on the right side of the enclosure. The Alpha RTP facilitates safe transfer by allowing the attachment of a Beta RTP conjugate capsule to the Alpha RTP. Following attachment, the operator is able to transfer the desired amount of powder (or aqueous solution*) from the enclosure interior, through an opening created by the Alpha/Beta connection, and into a Beta RTP capsule. From here, both the Alpha and Beta conjugates are sealed and the Beta capsule is used as a transport vehicle to the other enclosure. Referring back to the previous paragraph, the enclosure also allows for the transfer process occur, in reverse, after the Beta capsule is transported to the next enclosure or RTP-compatible device.

After Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT) and surrogate powder exposure simulations, the enclosure was proven to contain to a Time Weighted Average (TWA) concentration below the customer’s specified parameter of 100 nanograms per cubic meter of air (ng/m3). The actual level of containment was proven to be 1.15 ng/m3.

The “Containment Target”, as depicted in the image above, is the respiratory exposure concentration specified by the customer. The “Surrogate Powder Testing Result” is the actual exposure concentration result from air samples taken during performance validation testing conducted by FSI. The surrogate “contaminant” sampled during the FAT was a powder substance with attributes similar to that of the actual contaminant.

 

*Note:If the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) or Occupational Exposure Band (OEB) for the pertinent HPAPI contaminant(s) are lower than 1 microgram per cubic meter of air (1 ug/m3), dissolution of the sample into an aqueous solution is an alternative method to reduce the risk of overexposure during RTP transport.

Additional Information:


GET A QUOTE

  • What is being done inside of the enclosure? What type of material (powder, liquid, gas, nuisance odor) is being worked with? How does the material enter and exit the enclosure system? etc...
  • What type of filtration is required? Single HEPA, Dual HEPA, Carbon, House Exhaust, etc... What is the required OEL (Occupational Exposure Limit) for the process, or any other details about containment goals? What is the quantity of powder or liquid, task duration, composition of powder, etc...?
  • What equipment is being worked with? What is the equipment model, size, scope, function, and any other information that will affect the design of the enclosure, including movement, heat output, etc...? *State the specific equipment make and model if available*
  • Drop files here or
  • Are there any additional notes or information that should be considered? Are there any special design requirements?

Thinking Outside the Box: 10 Considerations For Balance Stability

ABSTRACT:

Stability of your weighing balance is paramount when it comes to collecting reliable data for project. As the old adage goes, “Anything that can go wrong will go wrong.”. Depending on the problem, taking obvious action for a seemingly obvious solution may not result in success. 

The purpose of this paper is to inspire thought and dialogue regarding those “not so obvious” sources of balance stability issues. Below, you may find 10 prompt questions that will hopefully guide one in resolving those pesky head-scratchers: 


1 – Is the work surface causing instability? 

Placing leveling pads on the bottom of the legs of the workbench or table is a useful tactic to prevent inaccurate readings caused by wear-and-tear of the leg undersides. 

Additionally, the mass of the work surface affects the severity of data noise caused by vibration. The relationship between mass and vibration (kinetic vibration energy) can be illustrated by applying Newton’s law of Kinetic energy: 

Although a rare case and dependent on region, buildings sinking into the soil has the potential of being a problem. In regions near fault lines, there may be a slight change in elevation that could impact measurements at high sensitivities. 

2 – How is data reproducibility affected when weighing operations are conducted inside an enclosure or fume hood? 

Vibration interference caused by an enclosure fan is commonly-cited disturbance in the lab. What are some ways where the vibration can be reduced? 

3 – What can cause vibrational interference? 

Other than an enclosure fan, other equipment in the vicinity of your balance may be vibrating through the materials between them. Some pertinent examples are floor-mount grinders, tablet grinders, etc. 

At higher sensitivities, foot traffic near the operation could lead to error. Vibration may travel from the floor and through to the legs of the workbench or other work surface. The end result could be loss of powder or error due to disturbance of the powder. 

4 – How can the construction of the enclosure affect weight measurements? 

Depending on the construction of your work surface, you may experience measurement error caused by electrostatic interference. As the diameter of testing material continues to shrink, particulate is becoming increasingly susceptible to the electrical charge of the surrounding environment. 

Static dissipation is a critical consideration during the design of our products. Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM) gloves are a component of our EHA (Hybrid Isolator Series) and Butyl gloves are a component of our END (Nitrogenema) Series. The base of the Hybrid Isolator Series is phenolic and the superstructure of the Nitrogenema Series is composed of static dissipative acrylic. 

5 – What are factors that contribute to static interference? What are some control methods you could employ for abatement? 

In the powder world, static electricity is more than just that annoying winter zap when you touch a doorknob. In the lab, employees’ clothing/personal protective equipment, laboratory furniture, and even the construction of the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system servicing are some factors that could lead to product loss and erroneous measurements. 

We recommend that you keep the balance where it is upon sitting it on the work surface or inside the enclosure. Moving the base across a surface, especially if the surface is made of material different than the base, may cause enough static charge to interfere with your measurements. 

6 – How does organization of equipment inside the enclosure affect results? 

Depending on the type of enclosure and equipment you’re using, your balance may shift over time. Multiple uses of the balance over a long period of time may cause the balance to shift towards the enclosure face. In turn, air moving over the airfoil can blow some of the powder off the balance. At higher sensitivities, it could even bias measurements due to the force onto the weigh boat and/or the pan. Flow Sciences recommends that the balance be placed at least 6 inches behind the base airfoil. 

7 – How can the balance be oriented to achieve optimal data reproducibility? 

Organization of your equipment inside the enclosure can incur interference due to air currents moving around equipment. Just like a scale that is too close to the enclosure face, interference may be caused by air currents moving around other equipment. Vibration from other equipment, such as capsule machines, can cause vibrational interference. Flow Sciences recommends organizing your equipment such that these interferences do not occur. Don’t forget to consider putting your equipment at an angle; it just may work in a pinch. 

8 – What are the moisture-retaining properties of your powder? 

If you’re shrugging your shoulders over lousy regression lines, it may not be you or your equipment. It could be the powder itself absorbing moisture from the atmosphere. At higher sensitivities, hygroscopicity has a tendency to rear its ugly head. What could you do to prevent this kind of interference? 

Additionally, product purity is negatively impacted by its own hygroscopic properties. Flow Sciences recommends performing your operation in a closed, controlled environment purged of oxygen. For example, a contained environment enclosure with automated nitrogen purging cycles, such as Flow Sciences, Inc.’s Nitrogenema Glove Box. 

9 – Have you checked your certification results and calibration certificates recently? 

Sometimes, the solution to the problem is not where we have our “mental crosshairs” set. Lab managers place much trust on their lab equipment. But, have you checked your certification results recently? Have any calibration certificates expired? 

10 – Is there anything going on outside the lab building? 

Do you live near an airport? Just like dropping an object onto the exterior of the enclosure negatively affects balance measurements, that humming of the plane is a vibration itself. Is that annoying jackhammer actually sabotaging your weighing operation? 


CAMERON FAULCONER, IH-MESH
Industrial Hygienist / Product Manager

Cameron Faulconer is an Industrial Hygienist with a wide breadth of experience, spanning between commercial manufacturing, to home residences. His inspiration for his choice of career is communicating the value of preserving the health and safety of employees using the most effective and efficient means possible. Therefore, Mr. Faulconer found his place in the “Engineering Controls” rung of the hierarchy of hazard controls.

As a problem solver, Mr. Faulconer believes that the best safety solutions are created through consultative conversations with those who seek solutions. He believes communicating information derived from these conversations to be critical to the continued understanding of the toxicological impacts of the work environment.

His personal motto is “protecting the safety and health of employees from what can and cannot be seen with the naked eye”.


Red Lights and Green Lights - The Keys to Superior Containment in Compounding Applications



Abstract:

In a previous White Paper 2, we reviewed in detail how Flow Sciences vented balance enclosures can allow accurate measurement of samples in the range of 0.1 mg to 0.1 µg.

In this paper, we will review why very bad things happen when either quantity or purity of Highly Potent Active Pharmaceuticals is not properly maintained during the compounding process. Additionally, when highly potent active pharma ingredients are not effectively contained, workers may be adversely affected.


Why Compounding Applications Require Superior Containment

In the last fifteen years, the number of compounding labs has dramatically increased in the United States. Because there is an increasing demand for more high potency products and the number of different products being compounded in each facility is growing, there is an increasing need for quality control worldwide in these labs.

 

Dramatic situations have occurred worldwide since 2002. Consider Table 1 below:

Table 1: Issues With Contaminated Health Products
# Name Location? (Mfr.?) Date Impact Cause Footnote
1 Cefotaxime Germany 2002 Not reported Particluate Matter in Injectable 3
2 Cough Syrup Panama (Chinese Mfg) 2006 138 Killed Diethylene Glycol impurity 4
3 Teething syrup Nigeria 2009 84 child deaths Diethylene Glycol impurity 5
4 FDA Report (1990-2009) US 2009 34% of Compounded Drugs Failed Purity Tests Drug potency, impurities 6
5 Chemotherapy Drugs US NIOSH Lab Worker Study 2010 ~50%  More Mutations than Control Grp. Inadequate, improper containment equipment 7
6 Injectable epidural Steroid US (New England Compounding) 2012 753 Meningitis Cases; 64 dead Contaminated Injectable Drugs 8
7 Sterile Meds (Injectables) US, Texas (Specialty Compounding) 2013 17 Rhodococcus Equi infections; 2 died No GMP, many products, contaminated 9
8 Sterile Meds (Injectables) US, Texas; ( IV Specialty) 2015 Unknown, unproven Bad Containment, sanitation, and air flow 10
9 Marijuana, Medical Use US 2017 20 defective doses; 3 Deaths Marijuana had fungus spores 11

From insulin to various heart and cancer medications, highly accurate measurement is required during formulation of compound drugs. If compound purity and worker exposure issues are not resolved, modern compound pharmaceutical companies have the capacity to significantly harm both the patients and workers inside these labs.

 

Figuratively speaking, “red and green lights” in this process must be devised and obeyed. The author believes the following issues (red lights) with compounding equipment need attention (green lights):



Containment failure caused by poor internal airflow:

High potency powders must be contained within a designated space while being weighed or mixed with other ingredients. Active pharmaceuticals should never be in an environment where they can inadvertently spill or blow into the lab environment during the weighing or compounding procedures. Sometimes equipment design issues cause powder and fume containment to be compromised.

Also, compounding labs need to protect their constituent ingredients and blending processes from cross-contamination during processing. Escaped airborne trace pharmaceuticals are a significant contamination issue. If process protections break down, scenarios 4,5,6,7, and 8 from Table 1 could easily occur.

Solution:  

Smoother air flow always minimizes the effect of turbulence outside of the enclosure, working to stabilize interior containment. The Flow Sciences Class I BSC (biological safety cabinet) achieves low turbulence by using four (rather than one) airfoils surrounding the rectangular face opening paired with a slotted rear plenum.

The resultant aerodynamics creates proven particulate and vapor containment using ASHRAE 110-2016 and ISPE approved surrogate powder containment protocols. ASHRAE 110 containment is routinely found to be 0.05 PPM or better; surrogate powder testing results are routinely at or below 10 nanograms per cubic meter.



Reduced weighing accuracy caused by fan vibration transmitted to the work surface: 

It is crucial in analytical and compounding environments that precise weighing takes place inside the containment area. In modern measurement scenarios, lab balances are required to be accurate and reproducible with deviations ranging from +0.1 mg (milligrams) to +0.1µg (micrograms). Fan vibration in many units creates drifting tare weights. With unreliable weighing taking place, scenarios similar to 4 from Table 1 could occur.

Balance containment units from several manufacturers mount the fan belowthe filter housing and attach it directly to the containment cavity with sheet metal screws. This produces a direct contact pathway for motor vibration to be transmitted into the weighing area. Frequently in these units, fans must be turned off to get a stable balance reading.

Not good, particularly if the fan is located just above the work area where particles from the fan may contaminate the work area.

Solution:

Weighing stability is accomplished using the features highlighted below:

Little to no vibration in operating FSI balance enclosures means balance stability is achieved while the fan-driven containment system is running.



Functionality of equipment can be impaired by bad design:

Any containment system should support, not impede, effective science. If containment equipment cannot do this, precision is lost. All nine scenarios shown in Table 1 could occur with containment equipment of inferior design.

The Flow Sciences balance enclosures not only contain and protect Highly Active Pharmaceutical ingredients, they facilitate more straightforward compounding and sampling four different ways:

Ease of Cleaning assured with large slotted baffles:

Many balance enclosures have small holes or slots in their baffle assemblies which are very hard to clean. The sharp edges can cut skin or a glove and increase the chance for contamination. Flow Sciences uses straightforward large slotted baffles which can easily be cleaned.

Bag-In/Bag-Out filters can be replaced without threatening lab area contamination.

Many less expensive balance enclosures do not offer this option. An exposed filter is difficult to remove from a lab area without room contamination. Such contamination will create health issues and potentially contaminate other samples in the lab, destroying traceability. Photos show how bag-out process protects the room environment during filter change-outs.

Filter system configured to stop back-contamination when the fan is switched off.

Some less expensive balance enclosures actually place the fan below the filter.  This creates an area of positive pressure inside the fan housing and causes loose particles to fall down onto the surface inside the containment area when the fan is switched on or off. The Flow Sciences enclosure places the fan above the filter, keeping it and the fan housing completely clean of particles deposited on the fan blades trapped by the filter!

Thicker Filters mean longer life!

Flow Sciences balance enclosure filters are 4” thick to assure long life and infrequent motor RPM adjustments. Other manufacturers use thinner (2-3”) filters, which need to be replaced more frequently. Also fan adjustments must be made more often, and the fans usually produce more noise working against a clogging filter.



Conclusion:

All the above features allow Flow Sciences containment units to effectively contain fumes and powders, prevent cross-contamination, and be in compliance with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Criteria for a Class 1 BSC (biological safety cabinet) with proven particulate and vapor containment.

When the safety of compounding workers and the general public are both at stake, no lower standard is acceptable!

DR. ROBERT HAUGEN
Director of Product and Technology Development

Robert K Haugen  currently designs chemical laboratory containment equipment and develops new relevant technologies for Flow Sciences Inc.in Leland, North Carolina. He has also held positions at Kewaunee Scientific, Jamestown Metal Products, and St. Charles Manufacturing in similar capacities for 31 years. Previously, he did analytical chemical work at the University of Illinois (DNA, wastewater, and crop research) and Lawrence Livermore Labs in California (nuclear weapons research).

Dr. Haugen began his career as a curriculum writer for the Illinois Office of Education, developing texts on energy, urban management, and industrial pollution topics.

He received all his degrees from the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign, and is currently a member of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, the American Chemical Society, and the National Fire Protection Association. He has participated in the development of both ASHRAE 110-1995 and the current 2016 update.